Battle of Kurukshetra day 1 (part 3)

Bhagavad Gita

9/13/202211 min read

At this point in the chain of events begins the Bhagavad Gita. Having heard of the assembly of the army Dhritarastra asked Sanjaya what happened. I am not a great Pandit or Devotee, If I have a single spiritual qualification it is that I know how to follow the lead of great devotees. I do not have first clue how to speak on something as important as the Gita.

So I shall leave that to the great Acarya who spoke these following words to Vyasa himself and only got the response of More, Again, and Good.

Below is the Introduction to the Gita commentary of Madhvacarya.

Being compassionate towards the people, who were afflicted by the loss of Dharma, the Perennial Principles and Wisdom, further as desired by Brahma, Rudra and others, descent of the resplendent Vyasa came to be for dissemination of the Ultimate wisdom. Consequently, for propagating (the means of gaining) the desirable and avoiding the undesirable and for elucidating the meaning of Vedas in the light of Samsara (Primordial world), (and also) for the sake of those not entitled to (the knowledge of) Vedas and (since) deliverance is possible only through an insight in Dharma, (and considering thus) the Compassionate One, the knower of the words spoken in all the Vedas, which contain the Wisdom of the One, (who is) the indescribable due to the incapability of the senses, the Mahabharata was composed, through examples full of wisdom, to enable one to have the direct revelation of the Lord's true form, qualities, attributes. Thus it has been said: For the sake of the people, who were distraught in Samsara, who were devoid of the knowledge of the Vedas, even though they were entitled, and also for the sake of women and others, the leaders of the worlds, like Brahma, Rudra and the others prayed the Lord of the Gods, the Best of the Purushas. Then being pleased, and descending as the resplendent Vyasa, and also in other forms, imparted the well enlightened meaning of the Vedas, which were seen through the means not normally accessible through senses, in the best of the Vedas, known also as the Fifth Veda the Mahabharata. Thus, (Maha)Bharat, Pancharatra, Moola-Ramayana, Puraanas, Bhagavat Puraana and many other excellent scriptures were created, thus, in Narayanashtaksharakalpa. Even Brahma does not know it fully; others know it but partially. Even the Seers, verily, declare Bharata to have many meanings, thus, in Narada Purana. Beseeched by Brahma and others, Sri Vishnu narrated the Bharata, which has ten-fold meanings, which cannot be known by all the creatures. Skillfully composed, the Bharata was (declared) to be the Fifth and best of the Vedas, containing ten-fold meanings, propagating in all the parts (the glory of) Sri Vlshnu alone, thus, in Skanda Purana For realization of the Supreme, verily, it is better suited than even the Vedas. Even if the twice-born (Brahmin) knows all the four Vedas, including the Upanishads but, does not know the Puranas, then he cannot be considered as the well-read. Along with History (Mahabharata and Ramayana), the Puranas also should be accepted. Thinking that these (people) might deceive by concealing the true meaning, the Vedas were afraid of the ignorant people. For the people, for the faithful and for the superior being - in that order - has Bharata been expounded. In ancient era, when Bharata and all the Vedas were weighed in the scales by Brahma and other Gods, along with all the Seers, then the Bharata literature of Vyasa, weighed heavy Because Bharata carries the weight (of the supreme Vedic principles), it is known as Mahabharata. Even according to Nirukta, Mahabharata is known as destroyer of all the demerits. What is contained therein is also (found) in other places; and what is not contained here is not to be found anywhere else. Viraat and Udyoga Chapters contain the essence (of Bharata). Considering the above references, other views and the tradition of the seers, (the greatness of Bharata is established). Who else than Sriman Narayan could have written Mahabharata, such is the definite view of all the Puranas and other scriptures, as studied and spoken by Narada and the others. How else would all the demerits be eliminated by the knowledge of the meaning of Mahabharata alone? This is a well known belief. Why do the other scriptures are not capable of doing it ? This fact is well established by the Scripture itself, but not for the sake of praise alone. It is an established fact. There is no other reason to doubt its veracity. Further in addition, the Gita is a subsidiary recital in the form of a dialogue between Vasudeva and Arjuna, the essence of the entire Bharata, like the honey collected from the Parijata flower, the (Maha) Bharata., Amongst all scriptures, the Bharata; amongst Bharata the Gita is better. Thousand names of Sri Vishnu should be known and studied, both together, thus has it been said in Kurma Purana. This, verily, is the Perennial Principle (Dharma), capable of granting the Supreme, the Abode. And such other words, thus, in Mahakurma Purana. All these, verily, are known from statements made herein. Therein, Sriman Narayan taught the supreme Dharma of the Kshatriyas to Arjuna, who was the very manifestation of Indra, thereby being a qualified soul as well as extremely dear one, so that (in dealing with) the enemies of Sriman Narayan and in (the process of) foiling their deeds born according to their nature, (Arjuna) may not, due to fraternal feelings, succumb to the acts, which are contrary to the Perennial Principles (Dharma). Further for releasing him from such (confusion in) thought, he also imparted him, conforming his inclination and devoted mind, that "The propitiation of the Lord alone is the Supreme Dharma, and all else which is contrary, is not Dharma, because every thing, verily, is dependent on the Lord alone". "But if you do not fight such righteous battle, then shorn of one's righteous duty and glory you will incur demerit" (11.33). And by such other principles regarding the Warfare. "He from whom all the creatures are energised, by whom all this is pervaded, by propitiating Him by performance of one's actions, the human being attains perfection." (XVIIl.46). "Preferable is one's own ordained Dharma (perennial Principle) even though imperfect, thern following Dharma ordained for others, even though followed perfectly. Death in performance of one's own Dharma is preferable for the Dharma ordained for others is fraught with danger." (III.35). "The most secret of all (the secrets) listen again to My Supreme Words. Well loved and established one you are to Me, therefore, I will tell you what is good for you" (XVIIl.64). "Fix your mind on Me, be devoted to Me, perform sacrifices to Me, prostrate before Me, so that you shall come to Me alone. That is the Truth which I speak to you, for you are dear to Me" (XVIIl.65). "Abandoning all the constraints placed by the Perennial Principles, take refuge in Me alone. I will deliver you from all the demerits. Do not be grieved." (XVIII.66). By such and other verses (it is recommended that) adoration to the Lord by following Dharmic principles is the sole form of action and all other than these, are to be avoided. "I cannot be realized either through Vedas or through austerities or by charity or by sacrifices in this form which you have seen Me now. " (XI.53). "But by intense communion, O Arjuna, I am capable to be known, truly seen and in principle have similarity with Me." (XI.54). By such and other verses, (it is declared that) devotion to Sri Vishnu alone is the surest amongst all the means of deliverance for men of wisdom, for their indirect as well as direct realization, they being subservient to the Lord. "One who is intent in doing My work, one who looks to Me as the Supreme, one who is in communion with Me, is freed from attachments, without enmity towards any creatures, he, verily, is very' similar to Me, O Pandava." (XI.55) Here it is clarified that the devotees .should perform works in the form of adoration to the Lord and avoid the works which are not so recommended. "Therefore, perform your actions even as the ancients did perform in former times" (IV. I5). By such statement, work for the Lord for the men of wisdom (is recommended)." “This form of Mine which is difficult to be seen, has been seen by you. Even the Gods are ever eager to see this form" (XI.52). "Well loved and established one you are to Me, therefore, I will tell you what is good for you" (XVIII.64). "The divine attributes are for deliverance and non-divine attributes for bondage. However, do not grieve, O Arjuna, for you are born with the divine attributes". (XVI.5). "But the great-souled, O Partha, abiding in My divine nature, propitiate Me with undistracted mind, aware of this imperishable source of beings." (IX.13). "Sri Hari revealed to Partha, His Supreme and' brilliant form" (XI. 9). By such and other verses, best qualifications are pointed to Arjuna and also the Wisdom for direct realization. "No one among the hosts of the gods knows My manifestation nor even the great seers. I am prior even to the gods and the great seers in all respects." (X.2). "He who knows Me, the unborn and without beginning, the Lord of the worlds, being (thereby) undeluded among the mortals, is released from all the demerits" (X.3). "Intellect, knowledge, absence of delusion, compassion, truth, self-restraint, tranquility..." (X.4). "The seven Seers in earlier ages..." (X.6). "The splendour and equanimity of Mine..." (X.7). "I am the origin of all, from Me all this emanates. Thus being aware, the wise ones worship Me, endowed with full conviction" (X.8). "Out of compassion, I destroy the darkness arising in them from non awareness, remaining in their Self ..." (X.H). "I speedily deliver them from the ocean of mortality..." (Xll.7). "Knowing Me as the enjoyer of the sacrifices and of the penances, as the Lord of of the worlds and welldisposed towards all creatures (the ascetic) reaches peace." (V.29). "Without leaving anything, I will convey this Joana (wisdom) to you and the vi-Jnana (supra-sensory awareness), knowing which there would not remain anything else left to be known." (VII.2). "I am the origin of the world and of the dissolution as well" (VII.6). "O Arjuna, there is nothing else superior to Me. By Me alone are all these woven like pearls on the string." (VII.7). "I will declare to you, who does not waver, the profound secret, by the wisdom (Jnana) together with the supra-sensory awareness (vi-Jnana) of which you will be delivered from the non-propitious. This is the Sovereign Wisdom, Sovereign Secret..." (IX.1-2). "By Me is all this universe pervaded in My unmanifest form. In Me all the beings abide, but I do not abide in them" (IX.4). "I sustain them, yet I do not abide in them" (IX.S). "No one is equal to You; how, then, can anyone be greater than You..?" (XI.43). "The Supreme Wisdom I will declare again, that which is the best of all wisdom" (XIV.I). "My womb is the Great Brahma (Prakriti); in that womb I deliver. Then is the birth of the creatures becomes possible, O Arjuna" (XIV3). “For I am the abode of the Brahman, the Immortal, the Imperishable, the Eternal, the Perennial Principle and the Blissful solitude" (XIV.27). "In this world, there are two Persons, the Perishable and the Imperishable. Perishable are all the. creatures and the Indweller is spoken as the Imperishable. The Supreme Person is yet another, referred to as the Supreme Self who entering the three worlds and sustaining them is called the Imperishable Supreme Lord. Because I transcend the Perishable One and am superior even to the Imperishable, I am eulogized in this world and in the Vedas as well, as the Supreme Person. The one who, being un-deluded, thus knows Me as the Supreme Person, he is the knower of all and worships Me with all his being, O Arjuna. Thus was this most secret science been spoken by Me, 0 blameless One, knowing which one becomes wise and content of his actions, O Arjuna" (XV.I6-20). "There exists no actions for Me, 0 Arjuna, to be performed in all these worlds; nor anything to be gained which I do not possess..." (UI.22). By such and other (words like) 'amongst all, the Lord is distinct; 'all else is under His control; 'His being not under control of anyone else; 'Supreme amongst all; 'Being full of all attributes”. 'The Supreme among all the sciences; and 'from knowing Him alone is deliverance,' etc. (it comes to be assured). O Lord Sri Vishnu ! Your adoration, your worship and sacrifice as well is to be done both by the Sacrificers and by men of Wisdom”. Even those who have realized their Self should, without arguing: "When I have acquired deliverance through Wisdom, why should I now perform Action ?" perform their ordained actions and enjoy the excellence of Bliss. Being pleased with devotion, the Purusha grants the Wisdom that is helpful. Being pleased with well formed devotion, He reveals His form to him. Similarly, being pleased with excellent form of devotion, He grants deliverance to him. Even when delivered, he remains subservient to the Lord, endowed with eternal devotion. The Devotion while in deliverance is not the means but (is the end) in the form of Blissful awareness. The Lord is Independent of even Brahma, Rudra, Rama and others. All are dependent upon Him. because of His being Complete in all attributes. Devotion is said to be knowing Him to be devoid of any defects, and having excellent fraternal feelings towards Him. This is the excellent and the best of all the means. By that alone, deliverance is assured; none other means are similarly seen. Even the best among the human beings is the lowest among the qualified ones. The Seers and others are of the intermediate class. The gods are the best of the qualified ones. The Primal Breath (praana) is the excellent among the qualified ones. In the absence of realization of the Brahman, the position of the gods is not attained. With removal of the sheath (of non-awareness), one should listen to the divine play. Thus by listening repeatedly, the sheath (of non-awareness) ceases to exist. Even in gods, born as Kashatriyas, wisdom was established, as in the case of „Partha‟, when the sheath of (non-awareness) was removed by Vyasa. For propitiation of the Supreme Sri Vishnu, who fulfills all the desires, who in every respect is the very Lord Himself, Rudra recounted His greatness, as a sacrificial offering, by reciting the Rudriya hymn. In similar manner, O Ashwins, you also became enriched with food.(In the beginning) Sriman Narayana alone existed, neither Brahma nor Shankara. In silence He brooded over. Then all these were born as Vayu, Hiranyagarbha, Agni, Yama, Varuna, Rudra, Indra etc'. 'Narayan alone existed, neither Brahma nor Ishana. Vasudeva alone existed in the beginning, neither Brahma nor Shankara'. Whomever Sri Vishnu desires, to him he makes Brahma, Shankara, Indra, Surya, Yama and Skanda. No one creates the Creator. Ever evolving, the god of the gods, Sri Vishnu alone is the Great Summation. Nothing else is Truth. Speaking anything else (as the Truth), is contradiction. Except realization (of Sri Vishnu) no other things are considered as Human goals, thus in Paingi Shruti. -"You are beyond the measures. You are Complete in Yourself. None can attain your greatness". "Resplendent Sri Hari is magnanimous with many attributes and without any defects. None is similar nor superior than You, any where to be seen. Neither were there any nor will there ever be anyone in future, by assistance of others or on their own strength" - thus, in the Scriptures."yastvatmoratireva syat" in this verse, matters of deliverance are mentioned."For the delivered ones, who revel in the Self, no other works are prescribed. Therefore, you must perform the prescribed actions, thus Sri Krishna said to'Arjuna", thus, in Skanda Purana. "For the men of contemplation, through the means of wisdom" (lIT.3). Thus, with the intention of discouraging persons from performance of outward actions alone. "Not for even a moment can one remain without any action" (111.5). "Even the maintenance of one's physical life cannot be accomplished without actions" (111.8). "But these actions should be performed by giving up attachment and fruits of the performance. This, O Partha, is My decided and best of the views" (XVIll.6). The men of wisdom should perform the ordained actions without fail. It is never possible for every one to renounce the actions entirely. The recluse is a renouncer due to his aversion to the outward actions. "...the Wise, the seers of that Truth... will communicate to you that Wisdom" (IV.34). Such words suggest that Wisdom would emerge after .removal of the sheath (of non-awareness).

Thus ends the Introduction to the Bhasya and Tatparya Nirnaya of Sri Madhva on Bhagavad Gita, the Upanishad, the science of the Absoute, , the scripture of equanimity, the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna,